Held on 21-02-2010, English Language : Solved Paper , Based on memory
Directions—(Q. 1–15) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Evidence is growing that relatively cheap policies like climate engineering and non-carbon energy research could effectively prevent suffering from global warming, both in the short and long term. Unfortunately, political leaders gathering at a special meeting of the United Nations in New York will focus on a very different response. They will make many of the most important decisions on how to respond to climate change over the next decade. They are expected to thrash out political disputes like how much carbon rich and poor nations should agree to cut.
We have failed to rein in emission rises despite sincere and well-meaning promises made in Kyoto in 1997 and earlier, because carbon cuts are expensive to enact. Research by climate economists show that significant carbon cuts could cost a staggering 12•9% of global GDP in 2100. Available estimates show that for each dollar spent on global carbon cuts, we buy two cents worth of avoided climate damage. The solution is far more costly than the problem. Thus a global deal based around carbon cuts is expected to include a lot of spending from rich countries to help poor nations to prepare for global warming. Developed countries too apparently seem to have no problems in spending much money to save few lives in the distant future, instead of combating malnutrition, malaria, or communicable diseases today. It is amoral to build a dam to avoid flooding in 100 years, when the people living beside that dam are starving today.
Imagine if we could fix climate for the next hundred years for less than what a single country spends on climate research in a year. Climate engineering has the potential to do just that. One can explore the costs and benefits of so-called marine cloud whitening, a well-established techproposal in which seawater droplets would be sprayed into clouds above the sea to make them reflect more sunlight back into space thus augmenting the natural process where sea salt helps to provide tiny particles for clouds to form around. About $9 billion spent developing this technology might be able to cancel out this century’s global warming. The benefits from preventing the temperature increase would add up to about $20 trillion. We should research this technology today to identify its limitations, risks and potential so that it could buy us a century’s delay in warming.
But this will not be sufficient because we need better non-carbonbased technology options. Non-fossil sources like nuclear, wind, solar and geothermal energy will get us quite some way towards the path of stable carbon emissions.
Policy makers should abandon carbon-reduction negotiations and make agreements to seriously invest in research and development. As research spending would be much cheaper than carbon-emission cuts, there would be a much higher chance of political agreement, and a much higher probability of the promises being enacted. We have within our grasp alternative policy options that would truly leave the planet in a better state.
1. Why have past efforts to reduce carbon emissions failed ?
(A) Scientists were not interested in this field of research
(B) Global warming was not considered as a problem by the U.N.
(C) The cost of accomplishing this was too high
(D) Poor nations did not have the necessary knowledge to reduce carbon emissions
(E) None of these
2. Which of the following is a characteristic of climate engineering ?
(A) It is beneficial in the short term and also in the long term
(B) It can only be adopted by poor countries
(C) It has worsened problems like poverty and hunger in developing countries
(D) It is seen as less cost effective than other ways of reducing pollution
(E) It uses technology which pollutes the environment
3. According to the author, which of the following is/are the outcome/s of the meeting of world leaders in New York ?
(1) A resolution that carbon emissions will be reduced through climate engineering.
(2) Successful settlement of many conflicts regarding reduction of emissions.
(3) Developed countries have volunteered to spend over 12 per cent of their GDP on preventing global warming.
(A) Only (1), (B) Only (2), (C) Only (1) and (3), (D) All (1), (2) and (3), (E) None of these
4. What does the author want to convey through the phrase ‘Nonfossil sources like nuclear, wind, solar and geothermal energy will get us quite some way towards the path of stable carbon emissions’ as given in the passage ?
(A) All countries should use non fossil sources of energy to be able to achieve high carbon emissions
(B) The use of non fossil sources of energy will be able to check the carbon emissions
(C) Non fossil sources of fuel may actually increase carbon emissions
(D) If we use such non fossil fuels, it will take a long time to reduce carbon emissions
(E) None of these
5. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage ?
(A) Carbon emissions of poor countries are higher than those of rich ones
(B) Construction of dams is directly responsible for the starvation of millions
(C) The earth is in danger of extinction in a century
(D) There is a lack of consensus between rich and poor nations on the issue of reducing carbon emissions
(E) Countries have to spend a substantial amount of their GDP on climate change
6. What is the author’s opinion about agreement among countries in Kyoto ?
(A) Countries which signed this agreement had no intention of reducing carbon emissions
(B) The percentage of carbon emissions to be reduced was highest for developing countries
(C) Climate economists should not have supported this agreement
(D) It was a failure because developed countries backed out from the agreement
(E) None of these
7. What is the author’s solution to handling climate change ?
(A) Countries should use more expensive and long lasting ways of reducing carbon emissions
(B) Negotiations on climate change should be between scientists rather than between political leaders
(C) Countries should increase expenditure on research into ways of handling climate change
(D) The U.N. should finance climate research in developing countries
(E) Introduce economic sanctions against countries which do not reduce carbon emissions
8. Which of the following will be a suitable title for the given passage ?
(A) Risks of global warming
(B) The depletion of fossil fuel reserves
(C) Technology can fight global warming
(D) Global warming and decreasing GDPs
(E) The inefficient non carbon sources of energy
9. What is the author’s aim in promoting research into ‘marine cloud whitening’ ?
(A) To better understand how such technology can be utilized as an efficient solution to the problem of global warming
(B) To ensure that the climate scientists benefit financially
(C) To give developing nations an advantage over developed nations in fighting global warming
(D) To highlight the risks of such techniques
(E) To delay agreements on global warming for as long as possible
10. According to the author, what role will the rich nations play in reducing carbon emissions ?
(A) Pressurising poor nations to sign agreements on carbon cuts
(B) Funding carbon emission cuts in developing countries
(C) Diverting research funding from disease prevention to environment protection
(D) Spending trillions of dollars annually on non carbon energy research
(E) None of these
Directions—(Q. 11–13) Choose the word which is most similar in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
11. BUY: (A) Accept, (B) Pay, (C) Provide, (D) Bargain, (E) Cost
12. STAGGERING; (A) Swaying, (B) Huge, (C) Shaking, (D) Unsteady, (E) Collapsing
13. STATE: (A) Express, (B) Mess, (C) Official, (D) Say, (E) Condition
Directions—(Q. 14–15) Choose the word/phrase which is most opposite in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
14. AUGMENTING: (A) Reducing, (B) Growing, (C) Channelising, (D) Criticising, (E) Supplementing
15. COMBATING: (A) Holding, (B) Forgiving, (C) Caring, (D) Supporting, (E) Fighting
Directions—(Q. 16–24) Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error if any will be in one part of the sentence, the letter of that part will be the answer. If there is no error, mark (E) as the answer. (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any.)
16. India demonstrates its supremacy (A) / in space when it successfully (B) / launched its third satellite (C) / into orbit yesterday. (D) No error (E)
17. India needs a value education system (A) /who will inculcate values (B) / among the students and (C) / enrich their personalities. (D) No error (E)
18. Driven by the desire to save trees, (A) / residents of a locality (B) / has started using solar appliances (C) / for their everyday needs. (D) No error (E)
19. A large number of unmanned aircrafts (A) / being used by the military (B) / are suspected of having (C) / unsafe radio links. (D) No error (E)
20. Recent survey shows that (A) / 35 million children in the age group of (B) / 6 to 10 years have never (C) / attended no primary school. (D) No error (E)
21. Coal mines constitute (A) / a major percentage of the (B) / sources which cause damage (C) / on the environment. (D) No error (E)
22. A man who has been (A) / accused of fraud in (B) / an earlier job he will never be (C) / welcome in any other organization. (D) No error (E)
23. Worried about the continuing violence in the city, (A) / much students are set (B) (C) / to migrate to other cities / for higher education. (D) No error (E)
24. Many organizations have been offering (A) / attractive incentives to (B) / their employees in an attempt (C) / to boosting employee retention. (D) No error (E)
Directions—(Q. 25–29) Which of the phrases (A), (B), (C) and (D) given below each statement should replace the phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct ? If the sentence is correct as it is given and ‘No correction is required’, mark (E) as the answer.
25. In an attempt to grow economically, India plans to march towards an open economy by opened its doors to global markets.
(A) Open doors towards its, (B) Opening its doors to
(C) Open its doors in, (D) Opening their doors for
26. Though poverty is still rampant in India, economic growth and commercial development has served to reduce them substantially over the years.
(A) Has served to reduce it,(B) Is serving to reduce it
(C) Had served to reduce them, (D) Have served to reduce it
27. All witnesses of yesterday’s accident has been questioned by the police but none could identify the culprits.
(A) Every witness of yesterday’s,(B) All witnesses for yesterday’s
(C) Most witnesses of yesterday, (D) Many witnesses of yesterday
28. In spite of the rapid development of medical science, production of artificial blood has remained a distant dream for many scientists.
(A) Despite of the rapid, (B) As a result of the rapid
(C) In spite of some rapidly, (D) Because of the rapid
29. India has millions of job opportunities but there is a serious shortage of educated professionals whom are actually employable.
(A) Those are actually employed, (B) That is actually employed
(C) Who are actually employable, (D) Which is actually employed
Directions—(Q. 30–34) Rearrange the following sentences (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) to make a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions which follow :
(1) The government too has not left any stone unturned in promoting the ‘go green’ concept among the construction industrialists.
(2) It has succeeded in luring the builders into ‘going green’ by these incentives, thus mutually benefiting the builders as well as the environment.
(3) It means that the construction of their buildings ensures energy efficiency, water conservation and use of recycled and renewable energy sources.
(4) It has offered many attractive packages, subsidies and tax benefits to the builders who follow this concept.
(5) As the construction industry revives from recession and begins to bloom once again, the latest trend to catch the eye of the developers is to ‘go green’.
(6) All these not only have a positive impact on the environment but also prove to be more economical for the builders as well as the residents in the long run.
30. Which of the following sentence should be the FIRST after rearrangement ?
(A) 1, (B) 2, (C) 3, (D) 4, (E) 5,
31. Which of the following sentence should be the SECOND after rearrangement ?
(A) 1, (B) 2, (C) 3,(D) 5, (E) 6
32. Which of the following sentence should be the THIRD after rearrangement ?
(A) 1, (B) 5, (C) 4, (D) 6, (E) 3
33. Which of the following sentence should be the FIFTH after rearrangement ?
(A) 4, (B) 2,(C) 3, (D) 5, (E) 6
34. Which of the following sentence should be the SIXTH (LAST) after rearrangement ?
(A) 3, (B) 2, (C) 4, (D) 5, (E) 6
Directions—(Q. 35–44) In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words/phrases are suggested, one of which best fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word/phrase in each case.
When we sit down for a meal of market-bought products, we like to think we’re getting a reasonable …(35)… of the body’s nutrient requirements, but studies show that because of our chemical intensive farming, the food that we have, does not …(36)… the vital nutrients that our ancestors enjoyed.
Plants …(37)… with the help of soluble chemical fertilisers get lazy and do not develop the deep, healthy roots systems that pull additional elements out of the …(38)… In addition, the micro-organisms that break down organic matter and minerals to be taken up by plant root are …(39)… by chemical bombardment and violent mechanised manipulation of their environment. Essentially, we’re getting robbed, and having to pay for it in …(40)… health, energy, longevity, and advancing medical bills.
Unfortunately, agriculture’s single-minded focus on increasing …(41)… at any cost over the last half-century created a blind spot where rapid …(42)… of the nutritional quality of our food has occurred. This decline has been observed to be quite …(43)… in some crops but has sadly gone largely …(44)… by scientists, farmers, government and consumers.
35. (A) yield, (B) number, (C) amount, (D) deficiency, (E) strength
36. (A) grow,(B) specify, (C) inhabit, (D) cultivate,(E) contain
37. (A) growing, (B) eaten, (C) suffering, (D) arising, (E) rising
38. (A) pesticides, (B) plants, (C) food, (D) soil,(E) crop
39. (A) increased, (B) absorbed, (C) added,(D) wounded, (E) killed
40. (A) improving, (B) declining, (C) better,(D) simplifying, (E) defective
41. (A) yields, (B) fertilisers, (C) chemicals, (D) quality, (E) soil
42. (A) immigration, (B) improvement, (C) return, (D) progression, (E) deterioration
43. (A) more, (B) inadequate, (C) significant, , (D) inferior, (E) resistant
44. (A) improved, (B) unnoticed, (C) eradicated, (D) alarming, (E) unaware
Directions—(Q. 45–50) Each question below has two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
45. The ……… of his crime was a heavy blow as not only did his reputation …… but the business also declined.
(A) punishment, finished, (B) revelation, improve
(C) disclosure, suffer, (D) committing, lost
(E) realisation, hurt
46. The Secretaryship has been …… for a long time as nobody is ……… to undertake duties of the post.
(A) open, reluctant, (B) taken, interested
(C) empty, capable, (D) occupied, volunteered
(E) vacant, willing
47. The innocent man could have easily defendend himself but he ……… to speak as he was ……… of offending his friend.
(A) refused, afraid, (B) decided, unwilling
(C) intended, concerned, (D) declined, inclined
(E) denied, forced
48. ………… use of pesticides, especially DDT has been held responsible for the ……… population of vultures in various states across India.
(A) careless, uncontrolled,(B) multiple, increasing
(C) alarming, distinct, (D) indiscriminate, declining
(E) much, growing
49. Many rebels were mercilessly slain to ………… the rebellion but a few managed to ………… by hiding in woods and marshes.
(A) surpass, evade, (B) end, fight
(C) suppress, escape, (D) incite, run
(E) promote, revolt
50. Agriculture in India ……… over all other sectors because it plays a ………… role in the sociocultural life of its people.
(A) dominates, minor, (B) prevails, vital
(C) important, significant, (D) survives, minimal
(E) beats, critical
Answers :1. (C) 2. (A) 3. (E) 4. (B) 5. (D) 6. (D) 7. (B) 8. (C) 9. (A) 10. (A)
11. (E) 12. (B) 13. (E) 14. (A) 15. (D) 16. (A) 17. (B) 18. (C) 19. (E) 20. (D)
21. (D) 22. (C) 23. (B) 24. (D) 25. (B) 26. (D) 27. (A) 28. (E) 29. (C) 30. (E)
31. (C) 32. (A) 33. (B) 34. (E) 35. (C) 36. (E) 37. (A) 38. (D) 39. (E) 40. (B)
41. (A) 42. (E) 43. (C) 44. (B) 45. (C) 46. (E) 47. (A) 48. (D) 49. (C) 50. (B)